Aircraft performance and aviation management Essay

Aircraft Performance

Aviation direction

Contentss Criteria Page

Main aims of ATCPT 1:103

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Aircraft and land motions PT 1:2 03-04

Communication failure M:2 05-07

Steering country markers D:3 07-13

Communication capablenesss PT 2:2 14

Mentions 15

Briefly discuss about the chief aims of Air Traffic Services?

This information is supported by ( ivao.aero,2014 ) says the aims of the air traffic services shall be to:

  • Prevent hits between aircraft
  • Prevent hits between aircraft on the manoeuvring country and obstructors on that country
  • Expedite and keep an orderly flow of air traffic ;
  • Provide advice and information useful for the safe and efficient behavior of flights
  • Notify appropriate organisations sing aircraft in demand of hunt and deliverance assistance, and help such organisations as required.

Explain how these aims affect the aircraft motions and land motions.

This information is supported by ( faa.gov,2014 ) says Land accountants must interchange information as necessary for the safe and efficient usage of airdrome tracks and motion countries. This may be accomplished via verbal agencies, flight advancement strips, other written information, or mechanization shows. As a lower limit, supply aircraft designation and applicable runway/intersection/taxiway information as follows:

  • Land control must advise local control when a departing aircraft has been taxied to a track other than one antecedently designated as active.
  • Land control must advise local control of any aircraft taxied to an intersection for takeoff. This presentment may be accomplished by verbal agencies or by flight advancement strips.
  • When the tracks in usage for landing/departing aircraft are non seeable from the tower or the aircraft utilizing them are non seeable on radio detection and ranging, rede the local/ground accountant of the aircraft ‘s location before let go ofing the aircraft to the other accountant.

Aircraft motions

This information was mentioned in ( flyingwithoutfear,2014 )

  • When an aircraft starts its journey it foremost has to acquire permission to get down its engines from a land accountant, so it will hold to acquire permission to force back from its base from another land accountant.
  • Prior to taxi-ing it will be given instructions to take a peculiar path to the active track harmonizing to its parking gate place and any other aircraft which are utilizing the same track.
  • This permission will be given by yet another land accountant. Before the aircraft is given clearance to take off it will hold to talk to the accountant whose exclusive occupation is to give permission to aircraft to take off or land.
  • When airborne, the pilots will alter to another frequence and speak to a going accountant who will give permission for the aircraft to mount to a higher height.
  • Once clear of other going and geting traffic the aircraft will reassign to an airways accountant who will give permission for the aircraft to mount to its cruising tallness.
  • The crew have to inquire for permission to go forth its cruising tallness before falling towards its finish. As the aircraft approaches the finish airdrome, assorted accountants will be responsible for its safe transition until it lands and parks at its reaching gate.

Analyse the physical visual aspect of the control tower and its part to accomplish these aims andexplainabout the communicating failure processs.

This information is mentioned in ( faa.gov, n.d ) says In the yesteryear, Airport Traffic Control Tower ( ATCT ) locating determinations have been significantly influenced by the upper tallness bounds imposed by terminal processs ( TERPS ) and controller sentiments. Because tower siting ( height and location ) affects airport safety and building costs, the FAA had no agencies to mensurate quantitatively the betterment in air traffic accountant visibleness that can be gained by altering the tower tallness and location on the airdrome surface, and there was no needed minimal standard for tower tallness.

This information is supported by ( experimentalaircraft,2014 )

Preflight –During preflight make certain that you have the right frequences with you: look into the AIP, NOTAMs, attack and/or enroute charts. Preflight besides means that you need to look into communications handiness for the airdromes and the path you plan to utilize. If non certain so a phone call with your finish will work out that job, besides ask if they accept NORDO ( No Radio ) aircraft.

Garmin SL40 Aircraft Radio – Radio ‘s can go complex equipment when they are integrated into Garmin G1000 systems like EFIS. Standalone Icom, Bendix King or Apollo/Garmin wireless ‘s are truly easy to command. Having the pilots speedy mention manual in your flight bag or with the aircraft certification or manual can be a large aid. It will salvage the twenty-four hours should you go baffled about any map of the wireless.

ATC light gun –Some air power charts depict them: ATC light gun signals. Make certain you know them by bosom or transport a transcript of their significance with you. Practice these signals every one time in a piece.

Frequency alteration –If contact can non be established after a frequence alteration, travel back to the old frequence or channel and verify with the accountant that you have the right frequence. This is first thing you must make in this instance.

Second wireless –If you suspect that your wireless has failed and you have a 2nd one, set that frequence in the other wireless and seek once more. When I fly an aircraft with multiple wireless ‘s I plan to utilize all of them, and during a handover I set the following frequence into the other wireless and usage that one. This manner I ever have both wireless ‘s checkered and functional. Should I need to exchange back, its done within a wink of an oculus on the intercom panel.

Squelch puting –A put-down is used to stamp down the white noise when no station is conveying, turn the boss clockwise until the noise merely about disappears ( on wireless ‘s with an automatic put-down you need to draw or force the volume boss ) . Sometimes after exchanging and verifying that you have the right frequence and that the wireless is runing right it might be that you are merely to far off ( or winging excessively low ) for the following station. Its signal strength is merely excessively weak to open the put-down you will hear nil.

First thing I do is to open up the put-down manually ( pull/push the volume boss ) and listen to the noise/static and other aircraft and retransmit when able. Opportunities are that you hear them naming you merely above the noise degree. By the clip you get closer, the signal strength will hold improved plenty so that you can utilize the put-down once more.

Radio Failure –It will non go on that frequently but radio ‘s can neglect and holding a 2nd on standby will salvage the twenty-four hours. Should it go on, seek drawing the fuse wait a twosome of proceedingss and push it in once more. This might reset the wireless. Should this neglect so and you have merely one wireless, set 7600 on the transponder and find if you need to deviate to an airdrome where NORAD aircraft are allowed. It is advisable to name ATC after set downing to explicate the state of affairs.

Altitude –VHF communications rely on aerial ‘s to be in line of sight of each other to be able to have their signals. Should you non hear the other station so ascent, if possible, a twosome of 1000 pess. This will better the scope in which you can reach stations.HF communications rely on wireless moving ridge extension by the Earth ‘s Ionosphere and line of sight is non so much of an issue here.

Relaying-At times you may happen that other, perchance higher winging aircraft, are willing to relay your message to the land station. Sometimes even without inquiring, because they can hear you and the land station and its obvious to them that you can non make or hear ATC.

Transponder

Aircraft Transponder – The transponder codification for lost communications is 7600 in any manner ( A/C/S ) . Puting this codification will pealing bells in ATC installations and you will most definately acquire their attending! Again, make certain to explicate the state of affairs after set downing.

Diversion – If all else fails and your finish is a controlled airdrome where wireless communications are compulsory, so by all agencies divert to an airdrome where you can set down without a wireless and hold your wireless checked by a wireless store before you continue on to your concluding finish. Pass overing the signal country before come ining the circuit/pattern is a wise determination at that clip.

Describe about the ocular signals and their usage,colorss and effects of the markers. Besidesplace other markers in the manoeuvring country and their usage.

This information was mentioned in ( tc.gc.ca,2012 ) says A series of green flashes directed at an aircraft means severally

in flight

on the land

1.

cleared to land ;

cleared to taxi.

2.

return for landing ;

cleared for take-off.

3.

return for landing ;

cleared to taxi.

4.

cleared to land ;

cleared for take-off.

A steady ruddy visible radiation directed at an aircraft agencies

in flight

on the land

1.

give manner to other aircraft and go on circling ;

halt.

2.

give manner to other aircraft and go on circling ;

cab clear of set downing country in usage.

3.

airdrome unsafe do non set down ;

cab clear of set downing country in usage.

4.

airdrome unsafe do non set down ;

halt.

A series of ruddy flashes directed at an aircraft means severally

in flight

on the land

1.

airdrome unsafe, do non set down ;

cab clear of set downing country in usage.

2.

give manner to other aircraft and go on circling ;

halt.

3.

make non set down for clip being ;

return to get downing point on airdrome.

4.

you are in forbidden country, alter class ;

halt.

A steady green visible radiation directed at an aircraft means severally

in flight

on the land

1.

cleared to land ;

cleared to taxi.

2.

return for landing ;

cleared to taxi.

3.

return for landing ;

cleared for take-off.

4.

cleared to land ;

cleared for take-off.

A flashing white visible radiation directed at an aircraft on the maneuvering country of an airportmeans

  1. halt.
  2. return to get downing point on the airdrome.
  3. cleared to taxi.
  4. cab clear of set downing country in usage.

Blinking runway visible radiations advises vehicles and walkers to

  1. return to the apron.
  2. resign the tracks instantly.
  3. be cognizant that an exigency is in advancement ; continue with cautiousness.
  4. be cognizant that an exigency is in advancement ; keep your place.

This information is mentioned in ( airservicesaustralia,2013 )

Colour?

  • Runway markers are white ( although xanthous taxi strip centrelines may take on, take off, or traverse the track ) .
  • Taxiway markers are xanthous.
  • Markers on aprons and in ramp countries may include other colorss ( e.g. it is common to tag vehicle roadways in white ) .

Taxiway marker forms

?If a marker form consists of two or more lines—some of which are solid and

some of which are dashed—these are runway keeping place markers.

  • It is ever allowable to traverse from the dotted side to the solid side.
  • ATC permission is ever required to traverse from the solid side to the dotted side at an airport with an operating control tower.
  • When instructed to ‘hold short’ ever halt before the first solid line of the track keeping point marker as depicted below.

Figure01

Intermediate Holding Positions

Intermediate keeping place markers show a keeping place between taxi strips. Youwill need to keep at these if ATC direct you to keep short of a peculiar taxi strip.

https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTkYIForNMI-EcPDcR1932CUe2ajrVIWQDXN8bKmjx-UCh7eq2fJgfigure02

Aerodrome marks – how to acquire from here to there safely

Along with aerodrome markers and visible radiations, aerodrome marks are designed to help you in voyaging around an aerodrome.It is indispensable that you understand the coloring material cryptography and significance of these five types of marks when taxiing on an airport:

1. Location mark:

Identifies the taxi strip you are presently located on. It has a xanthous lettering on a black background

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTMNDtdO6UfEtjLQ4g7Wccx_0711mcETf32sSeTq_nis_NnxhnQLw

Figure03

Compulsory direction mark:

Identifies the entryway to a track or critical country, and countries prohibited for usage by aircraft. It has a white lettering on a ruddy background. You must obtain a clearance from ATC prior to continuing past this point

https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcREUw6j6TvLz-YJRhGPRxwjCq98KpSwn3NPjr022ARQHayV_76U

Figure04

Direction mark:identifies the appellations of taxi strips taking out of an intersection along with an pointer bespeaking the approximative way of bend needed to aline the aircraft on that taxi strip. They are located before the intersection, usually on the left side and usually with a location mark. It has a black lettering on a xanthous background

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-OhkC3_esNac/TgxqaLO_pJI/AAAAAAAAADk/bU9rWgd6WGA/s1600/300px-Airport_direction_sign.svg.pngfigure05

Destination mark:Identifies with pointers the waies to specific finishs on the landing field ( e.g. tracks, terminuss or airport services ) . It besides has a black lettering on a xanthous background

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/Airport_destination_sign.svg/699px-Airport_destination_sign.svg.pngfigure06

Sign arrays:Grouping of way marks. Signs are orientated clockwise from left to compensate. Left bend marks are on the left of the location mark and right bend marks are on the right of the location mark.

http://virtualskies.arc.nasa.gov/communication/images/3e.jpg

Figure07

Aerodrome lighting

There are many different illuming combinations that may be on some airports, particularly where aircraft operations are conducted in the lower visibleness ranges. For taxiing operations around landing fields, you should retrieve:

  • https://missions.capnhq.gov/ops/dot/school/CAPF5_Course/images/night_flight_approach.gifRunway border visible radiations are white ( although on tracks fitted with high strength lighting, the track border visible radiations within 600 m from the terminal of the track will beyellow. )

Figure08

  • taxiway edge visible radiations or reflectors are bluish

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQGITw1dEIDiPJ9kNs_XlHCBjW5KNW49JR2rftdttUjnC_givvr

figure09

  • taxiway centreline visible radiations or reflectors are green

figure10

  • https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTlWJCyNwsRXOaCXLePeIbGOIaC5dqSiXoXEt4Z97Yo-B8d4wbcdQrunway guard visible radiations are blinking xanthous visible radiations ( either in the paving or located on the side of the taxi strip ) and highlight a track keeping point

figure11

  • https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ2pa8AHcp43SfQ8JzDZvxK_nGE7xL5SPiRRbEI72pDpTdxwesYHigh strength attack lighting ( HIAL ) is ruddy and white

Figure12

Communication capablenesss of the users and the function of tower accountant

This information is supported by ( faa.gov,2014 ) sat the FAA ‘s air traffic accountants guarantee the safe and efficient flight for about two million air power riders per twenty-four hours – or about one billion people per twelvemonth. Air traffic accountants safely manage more than 60 million aircraft yearly to their finishs.

The U.S. air traffic accountant work force consists of about 15,000 dedicated and well-trained work forces and adult females working in air traffic control towers, terminal radio detection and ranging attack control centres, and en path control centres pull offing 30.2 million square stat mis of air space.

Air Traffic Control Tower ControllersWork in the glassed-in towers you see at airdromes. They manage traffic from the airdrome to a radius of 3 to 30 stat mis out. They give pilots taxiing and take off instructions, air traffic clearance, and advice based on their ain observations and experience. They provide separation between set downing and going aircraft, reassign control of aircraft to the en path centre accountants when the aircraft leave their air space, and have control of aircraft on flights coming into their air space.

Terminal Radar Approach ControllersWork in radio detection and ranging suites, utilizing terminal radio detection and ranging detectors to help the aircraft until it reaches the border of the installation ‘s air space, normally about 20 to 50 stat mis from the airdrome and up to about 17,000 pess, before passing it off to the En Route Center Controllers

En Route Center ControllersWork in 21 centres across the state, in a location off from the airdrome. You will ne’er see them during the class of your flight, but they will usually direct your aircraft for the majority of your drive. Controling traffic normally at or above 17,000 pess, the typical centre has duty for more than 100,000 square stat mis of air space by and large widening over a figure of provinces. These accountants give aircraft instructions, air traffic clearances and advice utilizing radio detection and ranging or manual processs they keep path of the 1000s of planes in the sky at any one clip. Due to the radio detection and ranging equipment, they work in semi-darkness and usher aircraft on the range

Mention

faa.gov, ( 2014 ) Chapter 3- Airport Traffic Control- Terminal. [ Online ] Available at: & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/atc/atc0301.html & A ; gt ; Accessed on 2neodymiumJuly 2014 Page

ivao.aero, ( 2014 ) Air traffic services. [ Online ] Available at: & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //ivao.aero/training/documentation/books/PP_ADC_Air_traffic_services.pdf & A ; gt ; Accessed on 2neodymiumJuly 2014 Page

flyingwithoutfear, ( 2014 ) air traffic control. [ Online ] Available at: & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.flyingwithoutfear.com/information-to-help-your-fear-of-flying/the-facts-of-flying/fear-of-flying-air-traffic-control/ & A ; gt ; Accessed on 2neodymiumJuly 2014 Page

experimentalaircraft, ( 2014 ) Loss of communicating. [ Online ] Available at: & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.experimentalaircraft.info/articles/communications-failure.php & A ; gt ; Accessed on 2neodymiumJuly 2014 Page

tc.gc.ca. ( 2012 ) 2.0 Ocular Signals. [ Online ] Available at: & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tc.gc.ca/eng/civilaviation/publications/tp11919-section2-1144.htm & A ; gt ; Accessed on 2neodymiumJuly 2014 Page

airservicesaustralia, ( 2013 ) 6. Aerodrome markers, marks and visible radiations. [ Online ] Available at: & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.airservicesaustralia.com/wpcontent/uploads/Pilots_Guide_to_Runway_Safety.pdf & A ; gt ; Accessed on 3rdJuly 2014 Page

faa.gov, ( 2014 ) Roles and Responsibilities of Air Traffic Control Facilities. [ Online ] Available at: & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.faa.gov/jobs/career_fields/aviation_careers/atc_roles/ & A ; gt ; Accessed on 3rdJuly 2014 Page

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