We live in an era of
computer technology which is running by cyber network where we can get any
information by just clicking or typing. With the updating of technology cybercrime
is also increasing in all the sectors. Cybercrime is a such kind of activity in
where some technologically advanced people stealing others valuable data and
documents, hacking bank account, creating malware/virus and spreading them,
bombing mail, spreading spam messages and phishing sites and so on. It is
necessary to prevent the cybercrime and fight back to these types of culprits
to save the people. Where we here the term “Cybercrime” our focus is gone on
“Cyber security”. This paper gives a detailed information all about cybercrime
and its properties and how can we prevent cybercrime and control its internal
The advantages of technology and the internet have
led more criminals to use cyberspace to commit crimes. The threat of cybercrime
is increasing as globalization continues to spread across the world. While the
impact of globalization has led to amazing, new discoveries throughout the
world, Internet connectivity has also made cybercrime easier. America and the
rest of the world have become more reliant on technology and use it in more
aspects of their lives, technology-users make themselves more vulnerable to
cyber attacks. Globalization and the growing use of computers in the world have
given people a motive to learn more about computing and become more
knowledgeable as programmers. As these people learn more, there is a risk that
they will use their new intelligence to commit cybercrimes.
Definition of cyber crime:
“Cyber crime” means any criminal or other offence
that is facilitated by or involves the use of electronic communications or
information systems, including any device or the Internet or any one or more of
them. Moreover Cybercrime encompasses criminal actions that target computer,
internet, or network utility, damaging functionality or infiltrating systems
Why do people commit computer crimes?
Criminal gangs are well-organized and operate on a
commercial basis – there is a supply chain, those that steal data are unlikely
to be the same criminals who commit the identity theft and fraud. The dark web
provides a market place for stolen credentials – with those that have stolen
personal data selling it on to those who wish to commit fraud.
Cyber-attacks with financial demands. A modern
take on blackmail, this can affect organizations of all sizes as well as
individuals. There are many variations — for example, hackers takeover a
victim’s computer and freeze it, they then offer to reinstate access after a
ransom has been paid. Another variation lead to a recent case where guests at a
hotel in Austria were prevented from entering their rooms until a ransom had
been paid – the hotel is reportedly removing electronic locks accessed with
cards and reverting to old-fashioned keys!
make a political or social point
Hacktivism involves breaking into a system for
political or social reasons. Until relatively recently, this was seen as the
domain of underground organizations such as Anonymous. The recent US election
has put focus on the role that governments might play in furthering their aims
through hacking activity.
Many businesses may feel that they are unlikely to be
a target for political or social hactivists, though it is well to be aware that
the targets of these attacks vary greatly. If someone objects to your
operations, you could find yourself at the wrong end of a hacktivist attack.
the intellectual challenge
This type of hacker plays to the stereotype of the
socially awkward loner who lives in a virtual world and turns to hacking for
both the intellectual challenge and the adrenaline rush of breaking into a
Those who hack for intellectual stimulation are not
necessarily criminals. They could be “white hat” hackers who help organizations
to explore their vulnerabilities so that they can put defenses in place.
While white hat hackers work with or for companies
and are a force for good, other hackers motivated by intellectual challenge can
cause harm. While they may not have bad intentions hackers, particularly the
inexperienced who are often referred to as ‘script kiddies’ can cause damage
during their incursions and leave systems vulnerable to those with ill intent.
Categorization of Cyber Crime
Cyber crimes are broadly categorized into three
categories, namely crime against
Each category can use a variety of methods and the
methods used vary from one criminal to another.
type of cyber crime can be in the form of cyber stalking, distributing
pornography, trafficking and “grooming”. Today, law enforcement agencies are
taking this category of cyber crime very seriously and are joining forces
internationally to reach and arrest the perpetrators.
like in the real world where a criminal can steal and rob, even in the cyber
world criminals resort to stealing and robbing. In this case, they can steal a
person’s bank details and siphon off money; misuse the credit card to make
numerous purchases online; run a scam to get naïve people to part with their
hard earned money; use malicious software to gain access to an organization’s
website or disrupt the systems of the organization. The malicious software can
also damage software and hardware, just like vandals damage property in the
not as common as the other two categories, crimes against a government are
referred to as cyber terrorism. If successful, this category can wreak havoc
and cause panic amongst the civilian population. In this category, criminals
hack government websites, military websites or circulate propaganda. The
perpetrators can be terrorist outfits or unfriendly governments of other
How criminals do it?
When any crime is committed over the Internet it is
referred to as a cyber crime. There are many way to do cyber crimes and the
most common ones are explained below:
is a type of crime wherein a person’s computer is broken into so that his
personal or sensitive information can be accessed. In the United States,
hacking is classified as a felony and punishable as such. This is different
from ethical hacking, which many organizations use to check their Internet
security protection. In hacking, the criminal uses a variety of software to
enter a person’s computer and the person may not be aware that his computer is
being accessed from a remote location.
crime occurs when a person violates copyrights and downloads music, movies,
games and software. There are even peer sharing websites which encourage
software piracy and many of these websites are now being targeted by the FBI.
Today, the justice system is addressing this cyber crime and there are laws
that prevent people from illegal downloading.
Stalking: This is a kind of online harassment wherein
the victim is subjected to a barrage of online messages and emails. Typically,
these stalkers know their victims and instead of resorting to offline stalking,
they use the Internet to stalk. However, if they notice that cyber stalking is
not having the desired effect, they begin offline stalking along with cyber
stalking to make the victims’ lives more miserable.
Theft: This has become a major problem with people
using the Internet for cash transactions and banking services. In this cyber
crime, a criminal accesses data about a person’s bank account, credit cards,
Social Security, debit card and other sensitive information to siphon money or
to buy things online in the victim’s name. It can result in major financial
losses for the victim and even spoil the victim’s credit history.
Software: These are Internet-based software or programs
that are used to disrupt a network. The software is used to gain access to a
system to steal sensitive information or data or causing damage to software
present in the system.
Viruses: Computer viruses are computer programs that,
when opened, put copies of themselves into other computers’ hard drives without
the users’ consent. Creating a computer virus and disseminating it is a cyber
crime. The virus may steal disk space, access personal information, ruin data
on the computer or send information out to the other computer user’s personal
contacts. The most common way for a
virus to infect a computer is by way of an email attachment.
Effects of Cyber Crime
Criminals take advantage of technology in many
different ways. The Internet, in particular, is a great tool for scammers and
other miscreants, since it allows them to ply their trade while hiding behind a
shield of digital anonymity. Cyber crime affects society in a number of
different ways, both online and in the offline world.
Becoming the victim of cyber crime can have long-lasting
effects on your life. One common technique scammers employ is phishing, sending
false emails purporting to come from a bank or other financial institution
requesting personal information. If you hand over this information, it can
allow the criminal to access your bank and credit accounts, as well as open new
accounts and destroy your credit rating. This type of damage can take months or
even years to fix, so protecting your personal information online is an
important skill to learn.
Cyber criminals also focus their attacks on
businesses, both large and small. Hackers may attempt to take over company
servers to steal information or use the machines for their own purposes,
requiring companies to hire staff and update software to keep intruders out.
According to EWeek, a survey of large companies found an average expenditure of
$8.9 million per year on cyber security, with 100 percent of firms surveyed
reporting at least one malware incident in the preceding 12 months and 71
percent reporting the hijacking of company computers by outsiders.
The overall monetary losses from cyber crime can be
immense. According to a 2012 report by Symantec, more than 1.5 million people
fall victim to some sort of cyber crime every day, ranging from simple password
theft to extensive monetary swindles. With an average loss of $197 per victim,
this adds up to more than $110 billion dollars lost to cyber crime worldwide
every year. As consumers get wise to traditional avenues of attack, cyber criminals
have developed new techniques involving mobile devices and social networks to
keep their illicit gains flowing.
The cyber crime of piracy has had major effects on
the entertainment, music and software industries. Claims of damages are hard to
estimate and even harder to verify, with estimates ranging widely from hundreds
of millions to hundreds of billions of dollars per year. In response, copyright
holders have lobbied for stricter laws against intellectual property theft,
resulting in laws like the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. These laws allow
copyright holders to target file sharers and sue them for large sums of money
to counteract the financial damage of their activities online.
What Should We Do?
Training and awareness are important first steps in mitigating these attacks.
All citizens, consumers, and employees should be aware of cyber threats and the
actions they can take to protect their own information, as well as the
information within their organization. So, what can you do to minimize the risk
of becoming a cyber crime victim?
strong passwords: Use separate ID/password combinations
for different accounts and avoid writing them down. Make the passwords more
complicated by combining letters, numbers, special characters, and by changing
passwords on a regular basis.
your firewall: Firewalls are the first line of cyber
defense; they block connections from suspicious traffic and will keep out some
types of viruses and hackers.
anti-virus/malware software: Prevent viruses from infecting
your computer by installing and regularly updating anti-virus software.
spyware attacks: Prevent spyware from infiltrating your
computer by installing and updating anti-spyware software.
your mobile devices: Be aware that your mobile device is
vulnerable to viruses and hackers. Download applications from trusted sources.
Do not store unnecessary or sensitive information on your mobile device. It is
also important to keep the device physically secure; millions of mobile devices
are lost each year. If you do lose your device, it should immediately be
reported to your carrier and/or organization. There are some devices that allow
remote erasing of data. Be sure to keep your mobile device password protected.
the latest operating system updates: Keep your
applications and operating system (for example: Microsoft® Windows®, Apple®
Mac, and Linux) current with the latest system updates. Turn on automatic
updates to prevent potential attacks on older software.
your data: Use encryption for your most sensitive files, such
as health records, tax returns, and financial records. Make regular back-ups of
all your important data.
your wireless network: Wi-Fi (wireless) networks at home
are vulnerable to intrusion if they are not properly secured. Review and modify
default settings. Public Wi-Fi, also known as “hot spots,” may be vulnerable.
Avoid conducting sensitive transactions on these networks.
your e-identity: Be cautious when giving out personal
information, such as your name, address, telephone number, or financial
information on the Internet. Make sure that websites are secure, especially
when making online purchases, or that you have enabled privacy settings (for
example: when accessing/using social networking sites, such as Facebook,
Twitter®, YouTube, etc.). Once something is posted on the Internet, it may be
10. Avoid being scammed:
Never reply to emails that ask you to verify your information or confirm your
user ID or password. Don’t click on a link or file of unknown origin. Check the
source of the message; when in doubt, verify the source.
Though not all people are victims to cyber crimes,
they are still at risk. Crimes by computer vary, and they don’t always occur
behind the computer, but they executed by computer. The hacker could live three
continents away from its victim, and they wouldn’t even know they were being
hacked. Crimes done behind the computer are the 21st century’s problem. With
the technology increasing, criminals don’t have to rob banks, nor do they have
to be outside in order to commit any crime. They have everything they need on
their lap. Their weapons aren’t guns anymore; they attack with mouse cursors