A the tendency of the respondents to

A pilot study was carried out among PPP professionals. All of
them had valuable knowledge in construction management. Individual meetings held to measure the clarity,
identify any ambiguities and measure the required time to respond. The
questionnaire in its final form, was issued after considering all the finding of the pilot study.



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60 questionnaires
were received out of a total of 98 distributed (61.2%), which is a very good
percentage of such type
of questionnaires which need a certain level of experience in Public Private
Partnership projects. The sample of respondents represents 19 organizations.
The results were tabulated and analyzed as follows:























The Respondents Data

Figure 2
illustrates the working positions of the respondents and their level of education. The results showed
that the tendency of
the respondents to be from managerial positions. 52.0% of respondents are between team leader up to
director/general manager. The respondents overall had
a high
level of education and academic studies. 32.0% of the total sample having a post-graduate degree up to a


The results also show that 67.4% of the
respondents have more than 10 of experience and 39.6% of them have more than 16
years of experience. These measurements confirm that the respondents come from high
levels of experience in the field of construction along with the having
experience in the different phases of PPP projects.


Figure 2:
Work positions for the questionnaire respondents




Organization and PPP
Project Data

The majority of the questionnaire respondents
were from construction contractor companies which are expected because concession companies in Egypt are
usually large contractor companies. Those
companies usually represent the private partner in PPP projects. Figure 3 depicts the role of respondents’ companies in the
construction field.


Figure 3: Respondent’s Companies
current role in the construction field


Average Yearly Organization
Revenue and Number of Employees

The average yearly revenue of respondents’ organizations is
one of the criteria used
in categorizing the company sizes in small, medium and large organizations, 58.6% from the
respondents coming from an organization with yearly revenue of more than $100 M
USD. Another indicator also used in classifying the organization size is the
number of employees. The majority of companies participating in PPP projects
are large-scale
organizations. As such, 80% of the respondents work in organizations of more
than 500 employees. Both results
show that the most of the respondents are from large
organizations which are suitable for PPP projects’ nature.


Use KPI in the Organization

76.7% Of the respondents confirm the use
of KPIs in their organization. This high percentage is seemingly reasonable as
most of the companies dealing with PPP projects are large organizations and would have its own system
for measuring performance using different means. 


PPP Project Type                                                              

Figure 4 illustrates that more than 78%
of the respondents have
experience in study and/or execution of PPP projects
through public infrastructure and energy projects. The remaining have
experience, either in Egypt or other international experience, in other PPP
projects include transportation, education, health and other. The major PPP projects executed or under construction
in Egypt come from public infrastructure and energy projects.



Figure 4: PPP project classification
based on respondent’s experience with PPP projects


Project Concession PeriodBased
on the respondents’ experience,
the concession period ranged between 10 years up to 25 years with the peak
being between 15 – 20 years. The small percentages of the other periods seem to show that these options are
not reasonable for construction in Egypt. This distribution of responses is
possibly due to some of the respondents
worked before in other countries than Egypt, and these countries were
the sole source of their experiences in PPP projects. Figure 5 depicts the preferred concession period,
according to survey results.  Figure 5: PPP Projects Concession
Period Project Risk Allocation and
Distribution              The
best practice in allocating project
risks, is to assign the risks to the party that will best be able to
manage the risks. Usually the private sector is more flexible and able to take
the necessary action immediately, reducing overall risks So most PPP experts
prefer to allocate the risks to the
private partner or to be shared as shown in Figure 6.  Figure 6: Risk Allocation for PPP
projects Figure
7 illustrates the respondent’s choice that the government or a third party professional
should be responsible for monitoring the selected KPIs of PPP project performance measurement from different aspects.
End users or one of the public may concentrate on the service or the final product only so,
they get a low score. The
first choice to select the KPIs to measure the concessionaire company performance
was the service provided which reflects the direction of measuring the success
of the project based on the service
(see Figure 7-a).

a) Stakeholder who should be responsible for selectig
KPIs for PPP projects

b) Parties who should monitor the selected KPI
of PPP projects

Figure 7:  Stakeholders involvement throughout project Execution


Consistency of Survey
Data                        Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) used to
check the survey results by the reliability analysis test. The
reliability analysis using Cronbach’s alpha model was conducted to measure the
reliability of the data set. The Cronbach’s alpha values range between 0 and
+1, where an alpha value greater than 0.70 is considered acceptable. The
Cronbach’s alpha value of the survey data is 0.951 (F = 4.4, sig. =
0.00), which is above the acceptable value of 0.70. This value signifies a good
internal consistency and reliability of the research data. Determination and
Prioritization of PPP Project KPI’s 

The determination and prioritization of the KPIs is very
important to developing the proposed KPI system for PPP. These two targets are extensively achieved
through this part of the questionnaire analysis. This part concentrated on functional
KPIs which monitor the overall performance that affects the project’s purpose
and function. Also, has become the government’s main concern which includes the
interests of various project parties. Before going into details of the functional
KPIs, here is a summary of the results of the other two groups of PPP KPIs.


For professional KPIs, mechanical
and electrical components get the first prioritization of the professional KPIs
with a total score 77.5%
followed with the civil and structural components. In Egypt, like most
countries, the most difficult part
of projects’ execution,
from the professional point of view, is the electromechanical work. This
difficulty pushes the respondents to give the mechanical and electrical
component the most important rank. The product component, namely manufacturer,
supplier etc., is the third choice. 



Figure 8: Rank the main Categories of Professional KPIs


Figure 9 depicts the rank of operational KPIs which is
the third sub-category of the KPIs for PPP. 
Construction component gets the highest rank of operation KPIs
components. Pre-construction components are chosen as the second preferred component;
the third place was
given to post-construction component. Authors have another study for the most
important KPIs for construction projects in Egypt taking into consideration the
organization size and type of project. The output was seven assessment models
to evaluate the overall project performance.



Figure 9: Priority of the main categories of Operation KPIs


According to the survey results, the most preferred categorization of functional KPIs, as
shown in Figure 10, is the economic sub-category which monitoring
the effects of PPP projects to monetary issues, followed with Innovation and
learning. The environmental sub-category. get the
third ranking, followed by
the social sub-category monitoring the effects of PPP projects on the society and finally legal and political sub-categories. These results demonstrate an awareness of a construction projects impacts on the economy and the surrounding environment.


 Figure 10: Prioritize the Main Categories of Function KPIs


One of
the results which indicate a high awareness among the respondents is the high
ranking of innovation and learning KPIs as one of the major measurements of the project’s success from a functional point of
measurement. Employer training gets the high score of this sub-category, followed by establishment
of learning, organization, and technology transfer. In prioritizing the
variables of environment sub-category components, the highest ranking is placed
by the energy consumption, followed with whole life impact, environmental impact.
That energy and water get high rankings, shows that energy and water have become
the most fundamental prioritized elements of the environment.


Table 1,
illustrate the method used in calculating the overall factor used in assessment
all components of the six sub-categories. As the economic sub-category get the
first rank, 100% overall factor was assigned to economic sub-category and relative percentages were calculated
for the other five sub-categories based on percentage of every sub-category to
the economic percentage.  The same method
used to calculate the relative percentage of the components of social sub-category. Overall
factor used to calculate the relative score for all function KPIs.


 Table 1: Overall Factor for Function KPIs Components


Functional KPI                     Sub-Category


Relative Percentage



Relative Percentage

Overall Factor


























Legal Component








Social Component







5 – 1








5 – 2 – 1








5 – 2 – 2




Member of the





Innovation and








Table 2,
below, lists the priority of functional KPIs components while considering the
overall score of the KPI based on the relative weight of the sub-categories and
its components. For the components of economic sub-category which is consisting
of seventeen Indicators and get the first rank of the six Functional KPIs
sub-categories, the components of economic sub-category get the first 10th
places of overall assessment of functional KPIs ranking. The first rank is
customer satisfaction on service, followed by the life cycle cost, profitability,
value for money and customer satisfaction on product.