Colon cancer is the third leading causes of cancer deaths
in the United States. Colon cancer is on rise in developing countries and is
gaining importance. Although mortality and morbidity rates of colon cancer
decreased in US over the past decade due to improved awareness and screening,
there will be an estimated 93,090 new cases of colon cancer in year 2015 and 5%
of Americans would be diagnosed with colon cancer in life time. Genetics are
main cause for colon cancer incidence. But, environmental factors and diet have
an important effect on the colon cancer incidence and development (Sunkara et al.,
2015). In addition, Carcinogenesis is a multistage multistep
process. Animal models that mimic human carcinogenesis are important to
determine dose and to test the efficacy, safety of chemopreventive agents.
Chemical induction of colon cancer in rodents by azoxymethane was a widely
studied model for testing efficacy of dietary chemopreventive agents (Reddy, 2004). Nanoparticles
are of great interest due to their novel physicochemical, magnetic, and
optoelectronic properties that are governed by their size, shape, and size distribution.
It is permanently the nanoparticles’ extremely small size and large surface
area to volume ratio that leads to the significant differences in properties not
seen in the same material at larger scales in their bulk form (Perez et al., 2005). Moreover, biological synthesis has emerged as an alternative
to traditional synthesis methods for producing nanoparticles. Biosynthesis
involves using an green chemistry based approach that employs unicellular and
multicellular biological entities such as actinomycetes, bacteria , fungus,
plants, viruses, and yeast and synthesizing nanoparticles via
biological entities acting as biological factories offers a clean, nontoxic and
environment-friendly method of synthesizing nanoparticles with a wide range of
sizes, shapes, compositions, and physicochemical properties (Mohanpuria et al., 2008 ). In recent years, the convergence of
nanometre size scale technologies and biological technologies has created the
new field of nano biotechnology where nano metre size scale particles produced via
biological entities like plant cells, viruses, bacteria and others. In this
study we will show these new dimensions of this filed by studying and characterization
the synthesis and effects of biologically synthesized titanium dioxide
nanoparticles (TDNPs) in combination with other promising drugs for the
treatment of cancers especially colon cancer. Our results will provide an
experimental basis for production of titanium dioxide nanoparticles
biologically, understanding and evaluation its anticancer activity either alone
or in combination with other new drugs.